# PHP: How to Find Common Multiples

Lean to find the common multiples between two numbers in PHP; the tutorial starts by teaching you about multiples, then moves on to common multiples.

**701**views

By. Jacob

Edited: 2020-11-08 12:23

In basic math, a **multiple** is the result of multiplying a number with an integer; for example, the numbers *4*, *6*, *8* are all multiples of *2* — we arrive at each number by multiplying *2* with an integer (n).

In this tutorial I will show you how to create a few PHP functions that returns *multiples* and *common multiples* as an array.

In basic math, to get the multiples of a number, we can just keep multiplying the number repeatedly with an integer:

```
2*2=4
2*3=6
2*4=8
```

The integer should be incremented after each multiplication; note that this can continue on **infinitely** — or until your heart stops beating.

So how do we do this in PHP? Well, the most straight forward way would be to simply carry out a series of multiplication calculations, as you would have done it on a piece of paper.

In PHP we do not need to write out all the multiplications; instead we can use a looping mechanism to repeat a piece of code, and automatically increment the integer used in the multiplication. Each *multiple* can then be stored in an array for later use.

The below function can be used for this purpose:

```
function get_multiples(int $a, int $n=10) {
$multiples_arr = array();
for ($i=1; $i <= $n; $i++) {
$multiples_arr[] = $a * $i;
}
return $multiples_arr;
}
```

By default, this will return the **10** first multiples of a supplied number, and the *$n* variable can be adjusted if more are needed.

For example:

```
$multiples_of_two = get_multiples(2, 11); // Get 11 first multiples of 2
var_dump($multiples_of_two);
```

Output:

```
array(11) {
[0]=>
int(2)
[1]=>
int(4)
[2]=>
int(6)
[3]=>
int(8)
[4]=>
int(10)
[5]=>
int(12)
[6]=>
int(14)
[7]=>
int(16)
[8]=>
int(18)
[9]=>
int(20)
[10]=>
int(22)
}
```

## Common Multiples

A **Common Multiple** is a multiple that is shared by two or more numbers. Finding all the *common multiples* of two numbers can be done by maintaining a list of all the *multiples* for each number, and then compare the lists to find the numbers that occur in both; this means we need to store the numbers as two separate arrays.

We can even re-use the function I introduced earlier, and do like this:

```
$multiples_of_two = get_multiples(2);
$multiples_of_four = get_multiples(4);
```

Now we got a list of multiples stored in the *$multiples_of_two* and *$multiples_of_four* variables; all we have to do now is to compare them.

To compare the arrays, we can use a foreach loop. But, we should really wrap this whole thing in a function so we can call the code whenever we need:

```
function find_common_multiples(int $a, int $b, $n=10) {
$a_multiples_arr = get_multiples($a, $n);
$b_multiples_arr = get_multiples($b, $n);
$common_multiples = array();
foreach ($a_multiples_arr as $a_multiple) {
if (in_array($a_multiple, $b_multiples_arr)) {
$common_multiples[] = $a_multiple;
}
}
return (!empty($common_multiples)) ? $common_multiples : false;
}
```

Now, to get a list of the **common multiples** between two numbers, we can just call this function:

```
$common_multiples = find_common_multiples(2, 4);
```

## Least- and highest common multiple

Since we have stored the common multiples in an array, we can also easily return both the *Least Common Multiple* (LCM), and

PHP comes with build-in functions to return the *last* and *first* elements from an array, which will correspond to the LCM and HCM of the two numbers:

```
$common_multiples = find_common_multiples(2, 4);
$lcm = current($common_multiples);
$hcm = end($common_multiples);
echo 'Least common multiple: ' . $lcm . "\n";
echo 'Highest common multiple: ' . $hcm. "\n";
```

Output:

```
Least common multiple: 4
Highest common multiple: 20
```

## Lists of multiples

Here is a few pre-calculated lists to help you verify your results.

Multiples of two:

Number | Integer |
---|---|

2 | 1 |

4 | 2 |

6 | 3 |

8 | 4 |

10 | 5 |

12 | 6 |

14 | 7 |

16 | 8 |

18 | 9 |

20 | 10 |

Multiples of four:

Number | Integer |
---|---|

4 | 1 |

8 | 2 |

12 | 3 |

16 | 4 |

20 | 5 |

24 | 6 |

28 | 7 |

32 | 8 |

36 | 9 |

40 | 10 |

Multiples in common:

Common Multiples between 2 and 4 |
---|

4 |

8 |

12 |

16 |

20 |

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